Skip to Main Content
U.S. Forest Service
Caring for the land and serving people

United States Department of Agriculture

Home > Search > Publication Information

  1. Share via EmailShare on FacebookShare on LinkedInShare on Twitter
    Dislike this pubLike this pub
    Author(s): David W. Vahey; John M. ConsidineRoland GleisnerAlan Rudie; Sabine Rolland du Roscoat; Jean-Francis Bloch
    Date: 2009
    Source: PaperCon 2009, TAPPI/PIMA Paper Conference and Trade Show, 2009 May 31-June 3, St. Louis, MO. Atlanta, GA : TAPPI, 2009: [10] p.
    Publication Series: Miscellaneous Publication
    PDF: Download Publication  (1.47 MB)


    Fibers tilted in z-direction by hydraulic forces associated with rushing or dragging the sheet can bond multiple strata together, resulting in improved out-of-plane shear strengths. Tilted fibers are difficult to identify microscopically; however, their presence can result in different measurements of Scott internal bond when tests are carried out in the two opposing machine directions. These tests identified differing fiber tilts that correlated with differing amounts of out of-plane shear strengths in three otherwise comparable linerboard samples. The effect was duplicated in handsheets in which stiff, non-bonding carbon fibers were added to pulp to produce three-dimensional structures that interfered with the tendency of draining fibers to stratify. Even though the substitution of 10% carbon fibers produced a loss of bonding sites, the out-of-plane shear strength of the handsheets improved by an average of 15%. The search is on for methods to control fiber tilt in commercial paperboard. Success will result in improved mechanical performance without additional fiber costs.

    Publication Notes

    • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.


    Vahey, David W.; Considine, John M.; Gleisner, Roland; Rudie, Alan; Rolland du Roscoat, Sabine; Bloch, Jean-Francis. 2009. Impact of z-direction fiber orientation on performance of commercial and laboratory linerboards. In: PaperCon 2009, TAPPI/PIMA Paper Conference and Trade Show, 2009 May 31-June 3, St. Louis, MO. Atlanta, GA : TAPPI, 2009: [10] p.


    Orientation, fibers, testing, shear, optical measurements, fiberboard, mechanical properties, paperboard, optical properties, dimensional stability, stiffness, pulp, fiber analysis, shear strength, fiber orientation, fiber properties, z-direction, microfibril angle, linerboards, bonding, strength, fiber tilt, bond strength, tensile strength

    Related Search

    XML: View XML
Show More
Show Fewer
Jump to Top of Page