Skip to Main Content
U.S. Forest Service
Caring for the land and serving people

United States Department of Agriculture

Home > Search > Publication Information

  1. Share via EmailShare on FacebookShare on LinkedInShare on Twitter
    Dislike this pubLike this pub
    Author(s): Daniel Joseph Yelle
    Date: 2009
    Source: Madison, WI : University of Wisconsin – Madison, 2009: 163 p.: Thesis (Ph. D.)
    Publication Series: Miscellaneous Publication
    PDF: Download Publication  (6.34 MB)


    Solution-state NMR spectroscopy is a powerful tool for unambiguously determining the existence or absence of covalent chemical bonds between wood components and adhesives. Finely ground wood cell wall material dissolves in a solvent system containing DMSO-d6 and NMI-d6, keeping wood component polymers intact and in a near-native state. 2D NMR experiments, using 13C-1H one-bond HSQC on non-derivatized cell wall material from loblolly pine reveal details about the major cell wall polymers. This technique can determine covalent bond formation between cell wall polymers and wood adhesives. Monofunctional model compounds of pMDI were reacted with loblolly pine under moisture-controlled conditions to derivatize the wood cell wall polymer hydroxyls. The reacted loblolly pine was ball-milled, dissolved, and characterized via 2D NMR experiments. NMR chemical shift data from carbamylated wood model compounds were then used to assign carbamate signals in the HSQC spectra from carbamylated wood polymers. The data obtained allow us to determine whether covalent bonds form between loblolly pine and pMDI at different adhesive concentrations and moisture levels. Results show that high concentrations of the pMDI model react with the loblolly pine to form quantifiable carbamate linkages essentially only with lignin sidechain units under dry conditions. No covalent bond formation was detected after using a miniature hot-press on MTW with pMDI models at 5% and 14% MC.

    Publication Notes

    • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.


    Yelle, Daniel Joseph. 2009. A solution-state NMR approach to elucidating pMDI-wood bonding mechanisms in loblolly pine. Madison, WI : University of Wisconsin – Madison, 2009: 163 p.: Thesis (Ph. D.)


    Isocyanates, adhesives, testing, glue, adhesion, chemical reactions, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, hydroxyl group, loblolly pine, carbamates, spectrum analysis, lignin, wood moisture, moisture, solvents, gluing, polymeric diphenylme-thane diisocyanate, pMDI, polymers, polymerization, bond strength, bonding, wood bonding, durability, loblolly pine, moisture content, lignin analysis, theses

    Related Search

    XML: View XML
Show More
Show Fewer
Jump to Top of Page