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    Author(s): Gregory M. Bonito; Andrii P. Gryganskyi; James M. Trappe; Rytas Vilgalys
    Date: 2010
    Source: Molecular Ecology. 19: 4994-5008
    Publication Series: Scientific Journal (JRNL)
    Station: Pacific Northwest Research Station
    PDF: Download Publication  (778.0 KB)

    Description

    Truffles (Tuber) are ectomycorrhizal fungi characterized by hypogeous fruitbodies. Their biodiversity, host associations and geographical distributions are not well documented. ITS rDNA sequences of Tuber are commonly recovered from molecular surveys of fungal communities, but most remain insufficiently identified making it difficult to determine whether these sequences represent conspecific or novel taxa. In this meta-analysis, over 2,000 insufficiently identified Tuber sequences from 76 independent studies were analyzed within a phylogenetic framework. Species ranges, host associates, geographical distributions and intra- and interspecific ITS variability were assessed. Over 99% of the insufficiently identified Tuber sequences grouped within clades composed of species with little culinary value (Maculatum, Puberulum and Rufum). Sixty-four novel phylotypes were distinguished including 36 known only from ectomycorrhizae or soil. Most species of Tuber showed 1-3% intraspecific ITS variability and >4% interspecific ITS sequence variation. We found 123 distinct phylotypes based on 96% ITS sequence similarity and estimated that Tuber contains a minimum of 180 species. Based on this meta-analysis, species in Excavatum, Maculatum and Rufum clades exhibit preference for angiosperm hosts, whereas those in the Gibbosum clade are preferential towards gymnosperms. Sixteen Tuber species (>13% of the known diversity) have putatively been introduced to continents or islands outside their native range.

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    Citation

    Bonito, Gregory M.; Gryganskyi, Andrii P.; Trappe, James M.; Vilgalys, Rytas. 2010. A global meta-analysis of Tuber ITS rDNA sequences: species diversity, host associations and long-distance dispersal. Molecular Ecology. 19: 4994-5008.

    Keywords

    Tuber, biodiversity, biogeography, hypogeous fungi, invasive biology, ITS rDNA, phylogeny.

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