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    Author(s): E.A. Lilleskov; E.A. Hobbie; T.R. Horton
    Date: 2011
    Source: Fungal Ecology. 4(2): 174-183.
    Publication Series: Scientific Journal (JRNL)
    Station: Northern Research Station
    PDF: View PDF  (730.56 KB)

    Description

    Anthropogenic nitrogen (N) deposition alters ectomycorrhizal fungal communities, but the effect on functional diversity is not clear. In this review we explore whether fungi that respond differently to N deposition also differ in functional traits, including organic N use, hydrophobicity and exploration type (extent and pattern of extraradical hyphae). Cortinarius, Tricholoma, Piloderma, and Suillus had the strongest evidence of consistent negative effects of N deposition. Cortinarius, Tricholoma and Piloderma display consistent protein use and produce medium-distance fringe exploration types with hydrophobic mycorrhizas and rhizomorphs. Genera that produce long-distance exploration types (mostly Boletales) and contact short-distance exploration types (e.g., Russulaceae, Thelephoraceae, some athelioid genera) vary in sensitivity to N deposition. Members of Bankeraceae have declined in Europe but their enzymatic activity and belowground occurrence are largely unknown. Bankeraceae produce a distinct hydrophobic mat exploration type that may also be important in N acquisition under conditions of low N availability.

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    Citation

    Lilleskov, E.A.; Hobbie, E.A.; Horton, T.R. 2011. Conservation of ectomycorrhizal fungi: exploring the linkages between functional and taxonomic responses to anthropogenic N deposition. Fungal Ecology. 4(2): 174-183.

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    Keywords

    conservation biology, ectomycorrhizal fungi, exploration types, functional diversity, hydrophobicity, nitrogen deposition, protein use, taxonomic diversity

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