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    Two aerial applications of microencapsulated pheromone were conducted on five 20.2 ha plots to disrupt western pine shoot borer (Eucosma sonomana Kearfott) and ponderosa pine tip moth (Rhyacionia zowna (Kearfott): Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) orientation to pheromones and oviposition in ponderosa pine plantations in 2002 and 2004. The first application was made at 29.6 g active ingredient (AI)/ha, and the second at 59.3 g Al/ ha. Baited sentinel traps were used to assess disruption of orientation by both moth species toward pheromones, and E. sonomana infestation levels were tallied from 2001 to 2004. Treatments disrupted orientation by both species for several weeks, with the first lasting 35 days and the second for 75 days. Both applications reduced infestation by E. sonomana, but the lower application rate provided greater absolute reduction, perhaps because prior infestation levels were higher in 2002 than in 2004. Infestations in treated plots were reduced by two-thirds in both years, suggesting that while incrceasing the application rate may prolong disruption, it may not provide greater proportional efficacy in terms of tree protection. The incidence of infestations even in plots with complete disruption suggests that treatments missed some early emerging females or that mated females immigrated into treated plots: thus operational testing should be timed earlier in the season and should comprise much larger plots. In both years, moths emerged earlier than reported previously, indicating that disruption programs should account for warmer dimates in timing of applications. The AIs we tested are behaviorally active for 13 other species of Rhyaciollia and six other species of Eucosma, so the approach may have wide application.

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    Gillette, Nancy E.; Stein, John D.; Owen, Donald R.; Webster, Jeffrey N.; Mori, Sylvia R. 2006. Pheromone-based disruption of Eucosma sonomana and Rhyacionia zozana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) using aerially applied microencapsulated pheromone. Can. J. For. Res. 36:361-368.


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