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    Author(s): Tom D. Byram; E. M. Raley
    Date: 2011
    Source: In: Riley, L. E.; Haase, D. L.; Pinto, J. R., tech. coords. National Proceedings: Forest and Conservation Nursery Associations - 2010. Proc. RMRS-P-65. Fort Collins, CO: USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. p. 14-18.
    Publication Series: Proceedings (P)
    Station: Rocky Mountain Research Station
    PDF: View PDF  (276.66 KB)

    Description

    Tree improvement has been one of the most successful collaborative research efforts in history, eliciting participation from a wide variety of players. This effort has included state forestry agencies, research universities, integrated forest industries, and the USDA Forest Service. Tree improvement was organized through cooperatives whose objectives were to distribute responsibilities, rights, and rewards fairly and equally. Mergers, which accelerated in the 1990s, followed by land divestitures from integrated forest industries to institutional investors, and the rise of nursery businesses marketing genetics directly to landowners, have resulted in a much more heterogeneous business environment. With increasing disparity in organizational capabilities, changing economic goals, and the increasing costs along with potential benefits of biological research, it is unclear as to whether collaborative tree improvement efforts will remain viable. Game theory offers an explanation as to why tree improvement collaborations have been successful in the past, points out shortcomings in the current cooperative structure, and offers some insights into how we may choose to manage our future.

    Publication Notes

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    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.

    Citation

    Byram, Tom D.; Raley, E. M. 2011. Who pays for tree improvement? In: Riley, L. E.; Haase, D. L.; Pinto, J. R., tech. coords. National Proceedings: Forest and Conservation Nursery Associations - 2010. Proc. RMRS-P-65. Fort Collins, CO: USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. p. 14-18.

    Keywords

    tree improvement, silvicultural cooperatives, game theory, collaborative research

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https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/40164