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    We investigated the phylogeography of Gymnocarpos przewalskii Maxim. (Caryophyllaceae), a rare relictual shrub restricted to north-western China, in the context of Quaternary climate oscillations. ThreecpDNAregions (psbA­trnH, ycf6­psbM and rpl32-trnL (UAG)) were sequenced for 160 individuals from 16 populations. High genetic diversity (hT = 0.930, hS = 0.425) and a significant phylogeographic structure (NST >GST, P < 0.01) were identified; 31 different cpDNA haplotypes were detected. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the haplotypes were clustered into five clades, consistent with their distributions in the following four geographic regions: the Tarim Basin, Hami Basin, the western Yumen of Gansu Province and an easternmost region, consisting of populations in the Wulate Rear Banner region in Inner Mongolia, the Jinta and Jingyuan regions in Gansu Province and the Zhongwei region in Ningxia. The existence of regional divergence was supported byAMOVA,which revealed that ~63%of variation was due to differencesamong the four geographic regions. Four independent glacial refugia were inferred, in the western Tarim Basin, Hami Basin, the Liuyuan region in western Gansu and the easternmost region mentioned. Population bottlenecks and postglacial recolonisation were identified in the northern Tarim Basin, western Yumen and the Jinta region in Gansu Province.

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    Ma, S. M.; Zhang, M. L.; Sanderson, S. C. 2012. Phylogeography of the rare Gymnocarpos przewalskii (Caryophyllaceae): indications of multiple glacial refugia in north-western China. Australian Journal of Botany. 60: 20-31.


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    Gymnocarpos przewalskii (Caryophyllaceae), glacial refugia, China

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