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    Author(s): Sarah Z. Jonas; Weimin Xi; John D. Waldron; Robert N. Coulson
    Date: 2012
    Source: Tree and Forestry Science and Biotechnology 6(Special Issue 1):22-26
    Publication Series: Scientific Journal (JRNL)
    Station: Southern Research Station
    PDF: Download Publication  (597 B)


    We present a synthesis of current knowledge and information of hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA, Adelges tsugae Annand) impact on hemlock forests and conceptual framework of restoring damaged hemlock stands by HWA infestation. Native to Asia, HWA has been thriving in the eastern United States since the early 1950s and has become a serious pathological agent of both eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carriere) and Carolina hemlock (Tsuga caroliniana Engelm.) ever since.

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    Jonas, Sarah Z.; Xi, Weimin; Waldron, John D.; Coulson, Robert N. 2012. Impacts of hemlock decline and ecological considerations for hemlock stand restoration following hemlock woolly adelgid outbreaks. Tree and Forestry Science and Biotechnology 6(Special Issue 1):22-26.


    adelges tsugae, hemlock decline, natural regeneration, restoration planning

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