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    Efforts to investigate the vertical dimension of forests continue to refine our thinking on issues of biodiversity and ecology. Arthropod communities exhibit a high degree of vertical stratification in forests worldwide but the vertical distribution patterns of most taxa remain largely unexplored or poorly understood. For example, only 2 studies provide information on the vertical distribution patterns of predatory wasps in temperate deciduous forests. In Canada, Vance et al. (2007) found Sphecidae to be more abundant in flight intercept traps suspended 18 m or more above the ground than in traps suspended near ground level. Similarly, in Germany, Sobek et al. (2009) found Sphecidae and Vespidae (Eumeninae) to produce more brood cells in artificial cavities placed in tree crowns than in those placed near the forest floor.

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    Ulyshen, Michael D.; Soon, Villu; Hanula, James L. 2011. Vertical distribution and seasonality of predatory wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) in a temperate deciduous forest. Florida Entomologist 94(4):1068-1070.

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