Skip to Main Content
Approaches to measuring cultural diversity in recreationAuthor(s): Chieh-Lu Li; James D. Absher; Yi-Chung Hsu; Alan R. Graefe
Source: In: Chavez, Deborah J.; Winter, Patricia L.; Absher, James D., eds. 2008. Recreation visitor research: studies of diversity. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-210. Albany, CA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station. 207-216. Chapter 17
Publication Series: General Technical Report (GTR)
Station: Pacific Southwest Research Station
PDF: View PDF (403.6 KB)
DescriptionMeasuring cultural diversity in recreation has become an important topic because of the increasing coverage of and interest in ethnicity and cross-cultural aspects of recreation. Introducing theories and methods from established disciplines other than leisure studies/recreation and park studies is necessary to understand this important issue. In this article, we first define recreation and examine different aspects/domains of recreation cross-culturally. To examine different domains of recreation cross-culturally, we need to have an unambiguous cultural definition as a basis to measure cultural variations. If the definition of culture contains cultural content (e.g., language, religion, family structure, cultural values), then we can specifically examine the influence of cultural content on recreation with various methods. We discuss different methods of measuring culture, emphasizing cultural consensus analysis to estimate the level of within-group or intracultural agreement. We also stress the issue of examining the homogeneity of ethnic groups as "real groups" from a scientific perspective. Finally, we describe approaches to measuring between-group or intercultural variations.
- You may send email to email@example.com to request a hard copy of this publication.
- (Please specify exactly which publication you are requesting and your mailing address.)
- We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
- This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.
CitationLi, Chieh-Lu; Absher, James D.; Hsu,Yi-Chung; Graefe, Alan R. 2008. Approaches to measuring cultural diversity in recreation. In: Chavez, Deborah J.; Winter, Patricia L.; Absher, James D., eds. Recreation visitor research: studies of diversity. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-210. Albany, CA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station. 207-216. Chapter 17.
KeywordsCulture, diversity, outdoor recreation, measurement
- Routes to communication about outdoor recreation with diverse publics: what we know about media
- Re-examine the measure of values cross-culturally: the case of recreation visitors in Hong Kong and Taiwan
- Ethnicity as a construct in leisure research: a rejoinder to Gobster
XML: View XML