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    Budworms (Choristoneura spp.) have repeatedly defoliated millions of hectares of conifers throughout North America. The seriousness of the problem is underscored by research findings in eastern Canada and the northern U.S. Rocky Mountains that the extent, severity, and frequency of bud worm outbreaks have increased in the 20th century, primarily as a result of human-induced changes in forest structure and composition (Blais 1983, Carlson and others 1983, Fellin and others 1983).

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    Swetnam, Thomas W.; Thompson, Marna Ares; Sutherland, Elaine Kennedy. 1985. Using dendrochronology to measure radial growth of defoliated trees. Agric. Handbook No. 639. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Cooperative State Research Service. 39 p.


    budworms, Choristoneura, tree-rings, insect outbreaks

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