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    Author(s): Alex L Shigo
    Date: 1983
    Source: Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-82. Broomall, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experimental Station. 167 p.
    Publication Series: General Technical Report (GTR)
    Station: Northeastern Research Station
    PDF: Download Publication  (37.0 MB)


    This guide shows, in 110 photos, how discoloration and decay form in trees. An expanded concept of tree decay is given. After wounding, trees form boundaries to resist the spread of pathogens. The boundary-setting defense process is called compartmentalization, and model of the process is CODIT. The expanded concept and the model are used to reexamine many other tree problems. Defects are major causes of low quality in trees. Use of the information in the guide can help foresters and urban foresters to grow healthier, higher-quality trees.

    Publication Notes

    • Check the Northern Research Station web site to request a printed copy of this publication.
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    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.


    Shigo, Alex L. Tree Defects: A Photo Guide. Gen. Tee . Rep. NE-82. Broomall, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station; 1983. 167 p.


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    Compartmentalization, discolored and decayed wood, CODIT, pruning, tree care

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