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Fog and soil weathering as sources of nutrients in a California redwood forestAuthor(s): Holly A. Ewing; Kathleen C. Weathers; Amanda M. Lindsey; Pamela H. Templer; Todd E. Dawson; Damon C. Bradbury; Mary K. Firestone; Vanessa K.S. Boukili
Source: In: Standiford, Richard B.; Weller, Theodore J.; Piirto, Douglas D.; Stuart, John D., tech. coords. Proceedings of coast redwood forests in a changing California: A symposium for scientists and managers. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-238. Albany, CA: Pacific Southwest Research Station, Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. pp. 265-272
Publication Series: General Technical Report (GTR)
Station: Pacific Southwest Research Station
PDF: View PDF (588.45 KB)
DescriptionFog water deposition is thought to influence the ecological function of many coastal ecosystems, including coast redwood forests. We examined cation and anion inputs from fog and rain, as well as the fate of these inputs, within a Sonoma County, California, coast redwood forest to elucidate the availability of these ions and some of the biotic and abiotic processes that may influence their relative abundance. At this site, the patterns of water and chemical inputs via fog and rain and their movement through the soil-plant ecosystem differed between the summer fog and winter rain seasons. Most (98 percent) of the annual water and more than three quarters of the total ionic load was delivered to the forest during the rain season. Soil water patterns followed those of throughfall. Water for plant use was most available in the rain season; however, after large fog events (fog season) plant-available soil water was also present at the forest edge. Differences between soil water and throughfall chemistry were a function of the mobility of each ion, whether or not an ion was a soil weathering product, and the likely biological demand for the ion. The impact of redwoods as fog catchers, transformers, and redistributors of both water and nutrients may extend all the way into the soil profile: in our plots, organic-rich soil horizons were thicker at the forest edge than in the forest interior. Our data show that, although total fog water inputs were small compared to inputs from rain, fog carried a large proportion of the total aqueous ionic inputs—inputs that, presumably, continued to be biologically available until their loss during the rain season. Cross-seasonal, functional coupling of aboveground (canopy) and belowground (soil) processes are likely to be prevalent in this redwood and other foginundated forests.
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CitationEwing, Holly A.; Weathers, Kathleen C.; Lindsey, Amanda M.; Templer, Pamela H.; Dawson, Todd E.; Bradbury, Damon C.; Firestone, Mary K.; Boukili, Vanessa K.S. 2012. Fog and soil weathering as sources of nutrients in a California redwood forest. In: Standiford, Richard B.; Weller, Theodore J.; Piirto, Douglas D.; Stuart, John D., tech. coords. Proceedings of coast redwood forests in a changing California: A symposium for scientists and managers. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-238. Albany, CA: Pacific Southwest Research Station, Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. pp. 265-272.
Keywordscanopy, fog, input-output, rain, redwoods, soil
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