A simulation of white pine blister rust is described in both word and mathematical models. The objective of this first generation simulation was to organize and analyze the available epidemiological knowledge to produce a foundation for integrated management of this destructive rust of 5-needle pines. Verification procedures and additional research needs are also discussed.
McDonald, Geral I.; Hoff, Raymond J.; Wykoff, William R. 1981. Computer simulation of white pine blister rust epidemics. I. Model formulation. Res. Pap. INT-RP-258. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 136 p.