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    Sonic anemometers are capable of measuring the wind speed in all three dimensions at high frequencies (10­50 Hz), and are relied upon to estimate eddy-covariance-based fluxes of mass and energy over a wide variety of surfaces and ecosystems. In this study, wind-velocity measurement errors from a three-dimensional sonic anemometer with a nonorthogonal transducer orientation were estimated for over 100 combinations of angle-ofattack and wind direction using a novel technique to measure the true angle-of-attack and wind speed within the turbulent atmospheric surface layer. Corrections to the vertical wind speed varied from -5 to 37% for all angles-of-attack and wind directions examined.

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    Kochendorfer, John; Meyers, Tilden P.; Frank, John; Massman, William J.; Heuer, Mark W. 2012. How well can we measure the vertical wind speed? Implications for fluxes of energy and mass. Boundary-Layer Meteorology. 145: 383-398.


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    (Co)sine correction, eddy covariance, energy budget closure, greenhouse gas emissions, sonic anemometer angle-of-attack correction, surface-atmosphere exchange

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