Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Genome sequence of the button mushroom Agaricus bisporus reveals mechanisms governing adaptation to a humic-rich ecological niche


Emmanuelle Morin
Annegret Kohler
Adam R. Baker
Marie Foulongne-Oriol
Vincent Lombard
Laszlo G. Nagy
Robin A. Ohm
Aleksandrina Patyshakuliyeva
Annick Brun
Andrea L. Aerts
Andrew M. Bailey
Christophe Billette
Pedro M. Coutinho
Greg Deakin
Harshavardhan Doddapaneni
Dimitrios Floudas
Jane Grimwood
Kristiina Hildén
Ursula Kües
Kurt M. LaButti
Alla Lapidus
Erika A. Lindquist
Susan M. Lucas
Claude Murat
Robert W. Riley
Asaf A. Salamov
Jeremy Schmutz
Venkataramanan Subrananian
Han A.B. Wösten
Jianping Xu
Daniel C. Eastwood
Gary D. Foster
Anton S.M. Sonnenberg
Ronald P. de Vries
Taina Lundell
David S. Hibbett
Bernard Henrissat
Kerry S. Burton
Richard W. Kerrigan
Michael P. Challen
Igor V. Grigoriev
Francis Martin



Publication type:

Scientific Journal (JRNL)

Primary Station(s):

Forest Products Laboratory


PNAS, October 23, 2012, Volume 109, Number 43, 17501–17506, 2012.


Agaricus bisporus is the model fungus for the adaptation, persistence,and growth in the humic-rich leaf-litter environment. Aside from its ecological role, A. bisporus has been an important component of the human diet for over 200 y and worldwide cultivation of the "button mushroom" forms a multibillion dollar industry. We present two A. bisporus genomes, their gene repertoires and transcript profiles on compost and during mushroom formation. The genomes encode a full repertoire of polysaccharide-degrading enzymes similar to that of wood-decayers. Comparative transcriptomics of mycelium grown on defined medium, casing-soil, and compost revealed genes encoding enzymes involved in xylan, cellulose, pectin, and protein degradation aremore highly expressed in compost. The striking expansion of heme-thiolate peroxidases and β-etherases is distinctive from Agaricomycotina wood-decayers and suggests a broad attack on decaying lignin and related metabolites found in humic acid-rich environment. Similarly, up-regulation of these genes together with a lignolytic manganese peroxidase, multiple copper radical oxidases, and cytochrome P450s is consistent with challenges posed by complex humic-rich substrates. The gene repertoire and expression of hydrolytic enzymes in A. bisporus is substantially different from the taxonomically related ectomycorrhizal symbiont Laccaria bicolor. A common promoter motif was also identified in genes very highly expressed in humic-rich substrates. These observations reveal genetic and enzymatic mechanisms governing adaptation to the humic-rich ecological niche formed during plant degradation, further defining the critical role such fungi contribute to soil structure and carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems. Genome sequence will expedite mushroom breeding for improved agronomic characteristics.


Morin, Emmanuelle; Kohler, Annegret; Baker, Adam R.; Foulongne-Oriol, Marie; Lombard, Vincent; Nagy, Laszlo G.; Ohm, Robin A.; Patyshakuliyeva, Aleksandrina; Brun, Annick; Aerts, Andrea L.; Bailey, Andrew M.; Billette, Christophe; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Deakin, Greg; Doddapaneni, Harshavardhan; Floudas, Dimitrios; Grimwood, Jane; Hilden, Kristiina; Kues, Ursula; LaButti, Kurt M.; Lapidus, Alla; Lindquist, Erika A.; Lucas, Susan M.; Murat, Claude; Riley, Robert W.; Salamov, Asaf A.; Schmutz, Jeremy; Subrananian, Venkataramanan; Wosten, Han A.B.; Xu, Jianping; Eastwood, Daniel C.; Foster, Gary D.; Sonnenberg, Anton S.M.; Cullen, Daniel; de Vries, Ronald P.; Lundell, Taina; Hibbett, David S.; Henrissat, Bernard; Burton, Kerry S.; Kerrigan, Richard W.; Challen, Michael P.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Martin, Francis. 2012. Genome sequence of the button mushroom Agaricus bisporus reveals mechanisms governing adaptation to a humic-rich ecological niche. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science. 109(43): 17501–17506.


Publication Notes

  • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
  • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.