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    When wood is vacuum impregnated with liquid vinyl monomers that do not swell wood, and then in situ polymerized either by chemical catalyst-heat, or gamma radiation, the polymer is located almost solely in the lumens of the wood. Figure 16.1 is a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrograph of unmodified wood showing open cells that are susceptible to indentation and wear. In contrast, Figure 16.2 is a micrograph of wood after impregnation and polymerization showing the voids filled with polymer that will resist indentation and wear.

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    Ibach, Rebecca E.; Rowell, Roger M. 2013. Lumen modifications. In: Rowell, Roger, ed. Handbood of wood chemistry and wood composites, Second edition. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press: 599-625. Chapter 16.

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