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    Author(s): Xiping Wang
    Date: 2011
    Source: In: Proceedings of the 17th lnternational Symposium on Nondestructive Tesing and Evaluation of Wood, 2011; pp 25-33; 2011.
    Publication Series: Full Proceedings
    Station: Forest Products Laboratory
    PDF: Download Publication  (493.29 KB)


    Acoustic technologies have been well established as material evaluation tools in the past several decades, and their use has become widely accepted in the forest products industry for on-line quality control and products grading. Recent research developments on acoustic sensing technology offer further opportunities to evaluate standing trees and logs for general wood quality and intrinsic wood properties. Although the concept of using acoustic velocity as an effective measure of stiffness applies to both standing trees and felled logs, the method typically used to measure acoustic velocity in trees different from that used in logs. Consequently, there is a significant difference in measured velocity values between trees and logs. Other factors affecting tree-log velocity relationships include tree diameter, stand age, operating temperature, and moisture content etc. This paper presents the fundamentals of acoustic wave propagation in trees and logs and discusses two different mechanisms of acoustic velocity measurement — time-of-flight (TOF) for standing trees and resonance for logs. Experimental data from previous studies are reviewed to examine the strength of the tree-log velocity relationships and discuss the factors that influence tree velocity deviation.

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    Wang, Xiping. 2011. Fundamentals of Acoustic Measurements on Trees and Logs and Their Implication to Field Application. In: Proceedings of the 17th lnternational Symposium on Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation of Wood, 2011; pp 25-33; 2011.


    Acoustic velocity, acoustic waves, logs, resonance, time-of-flight, trees

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