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    Author(s): K.L.F. Oten; A.C. Cohen; F.P. Hain
    Date: 2012
    Source: In: Sniezko, Richard A.; Yanchuk, Alvin D.; Kliejunas, John T.; Palmieri, Katharine M.; Alexander, Janice M.; Frankel, Susan J., tech. coords. Proceedings of the fourth international workshop on the genetics of host-parasite interactions in forestry: Disease and insect resistance in forest trees. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-240. Albany, CA: Pacific Southwest Research Station, Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. pp. 6-10
    Publication Series: General Technical Report (GTR)
    Station: Pacific Southwest Research Station
    PDF: View PDF  (950.66 KB)

    Description

    The hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA), Adelges tsugae (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), is an invasive forest pest that threatens the existence of eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr.) and Carolina hemlock (T. caroliniana Engelm.) in the eastern United States. It is a small, aphid like insect with piercing-sucking mouthparts that it uses to penetrate its host plant and feed off the xylem ray parenchyma cells (Young et al. 1995). The hemlock woolly adelgid is native to eastern Asia and northwestern North America where it feeds on, but does not kill, its host (Annand 1924, Havill et al. 2006). The mechanism of resistance and/or tolerance is unknown. The invasive population in the eastern United States was first detected near Richmond, Virginia in 1951 (Gouger 1971, Souto et al. 1996). The range of HWA in the east has since spread through the range of hemlocks, now affecting 18 states (USDA FS 2011). The mortality caused by HWA to eastern and Carolina hemlocks is tremendous. Approximately 80 to 90 percent of infested hemlocks native to the eastern United States have already vanished as a result of this exotic insect (Hale 2004, Townsend and Rieske-Kinney 2006). Moreover, the production of hemlocks for the ornamental industry, valued at $34 million between Tennessee and North Carolina alone, has been virtually eliminated (Bentz et al. 2002)

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    Citation

    Oten, K.L.F.; Cohen, A.C.; Hain, F.P. 2012. Insertion site selection and feeding of the hemlock woolly adelgid: implications for host-plant resistance. In: Sniezko, Richard A.; Yanchuk, Alvin D.; Kliejunas, John T.; Palmieri, Katharine M.; Alexander, Janice M.; Frankel, Susan J., tech. coords. Proceedings of the fourth international workshop on the genetics of host-parasite interactions in forestry: Disease and insect resistance in forest trees. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-240. Albany, CA: Pacific Southwest Research Station, Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. pp. 6-10.

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https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/42299