Skip to Main Content
U.S. Forest Service
Caring for the land and serving people

United States Department of Agriculture

Home > Search > Publication Information

  1. Share via EmailShare on FacebookShare on LinkedInShare on Twitter
    Dislike this pubLike this pub
    Author(s): Alan W. Rudie; Peter W. Hart
    Date: 2012
    Source: In: The Bleaching of Pulp, 5th Edition; Tappi Press 2012. pp. 175-215.
    Publication Series: Scientific Journal (JRNL)
    Station: Forest Products Laboratory
    PDF: View PDF  (738.93 KB)


    Mineral scale problems are not new to pulp mills and bleach plants. The liquor recovery system ensures that white liquor is saturated in calcium carbonate, and this mineral will precipitate when heated to cooking temperatures in the digester [1,2]. The original single-vessel continuous digesters sold by Kamyr had an extra liquor heater as standard equipment to enable the mill to take one heater out of service for acid cleaning without impacting production [3]. Although lime scale in the digester is generally the most routine scaling problem in pulp mills, various other scales are common in the chemical recovery area [4,5], and several types of mineral scale can turn up in bleach plants or on the paper machines. Efforts to reduce wastewater discharge using countercurrent filtrate recycle schemes in the bleach plant [6,7] certainly increased problems with mineral scale, but except with direct countercurrent filtrate management [8], scale problems were usually not severe. Mechanical pulping operations can also have problems with scale, partially because these processes are less efficient at removing.

    Publication Notes

    • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.


    Rudie, Alan W.; Hart, Peter W. 2012. Mineral scale management. In: Hart, Peter W.; Rudie, Alan W., eds. The Bleaching of Pulp, 5th Edition. Peachtree Corners, GA: Tappi Press. 175-215, Chapter 7.


    Mineral deposits, mineral scale, calcium oxalate, calcium carbonate, barium sulfate

    Related Search

    XML: View XML
Show More
Show Fewer
Jump to Top of Page