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    Author(s): John M. FrankWilliam J. Massman; Brent E. Ewers
    Date: 2013
    Source: Agricultural and Forest Meteorology. 171-172: 72-81.
    Publication Series: Scientific Journal (JRNL)
    Station: Rocky Mountain Research Station
    PDF: Download Publication  (785.44 KB)


    Sonic thermometry and anemometry are fundamental to all eddy-covariance studies of surface energy balance. Recent studies have suggested that sonic anemometers with non-orthogonal transducers can underestimate vertical wind velocity (w) and sensible heat flux (H) when compared to orthogonal designs. In this study we tested whether a non-orthogonal sonic anemometer (CSAT3, Campbell Scientific, Inc.) measures lower w and H than an orthogonal sonic anemometer (SATI/3Vx, Applied Technologies, Inc.) and through experimental manipulation we tested if this difference can be attributed to errors in the CSAT3. Four CSAT3s and one SATI/3Vx were mounted symmetrically in a horizontal array on top of the Glacier Lakes Ecosystem Experiments Site (GLEES) AmeriFlux scaffold (southeastern Wyoming, USA) and in close enough proximity to allow covariance measurements between neighboring sonic anemometers.

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    Frank, John M.; Massman, William J.; Ewers, Brent E. 2013. Underestimates of sensible heat flux due to vertical velocity measurement errors in non-orthogonal sonic anemometers. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology. 171-172: 72-81.


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    eddy covariance, energy balance closure, sonic anemometry, surface energy balance, systematic flux error

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