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Bark beetle outbreaks in western North America: Causes and consequences
Rocky Mountain Research Station
Bark Beetle Symposium; Snowbird, Utah; November, 2005. Salt Lake City, UT: University of Utah Press. 42 p.
Since 1990, native bark beetles have killed billions of trees across millions of acres of forest from Alaska to northern Mexico. Although bark beetle infestations are a regular force of natural change in forested ecosystems, several of the current outbreaks, which are occurring simultaneously across western North America, are the largest and most severe in recorded history.
Bentz, Barbara; Logan, Jesse; MacMahon, Jim; Allen, Craig D.; Ayres, Matt; Berg, Ed; Carroll, Allan; Hansen, Matt; Hicke, Jeff; Joyce, Linda; Macfarlane, Wallace; Munson, Steve; Negron, Jose; Paine, Tim; Powell, Jim; Raffa, Ken; Regniere, Jacques; Reid, Mary; Romme, Bill; Seybold, Steven J.; Six, Diana; Tomback, Diana; Vandygriff, Jim; Veblen, Tom; White, Mike; Witcosky, Jeff; Wood, David. 2009. Bark beetle outbreaks in western North America: Causes and consequences. Bark Beetle Symposium; Snowbird, Utah; November, 2005. Salt Lake City, UT: University of Utah Press. 42 p.
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