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    Author(s): David J. NowakRobert E. III Hoehn; Allison R. Bodine; Eric J. Greenfield; Alexis Ellis; Theodore A. Endreny; Yang Yang; Tian Zhou; Ruthanne Henry
    Date: 2013
    Source: Resour. Bull. NRS-79. Newtown Square, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northern Research Station. 59 p.
    Publication Series: Resource Bulletin (RB)
    Station: Northern Research Station
    PDF: Download Publication  (2.46 MB)


    An analysis of trees in Toronto, Ontario, reveals that this city has about 10.2 million trees with a tree and shrub canopy that covers approximately 26.6 percent of the city. The most common tree species are eastern white-cedar, sugar maple, and Norway maple. The urban forest currently stores an estimated 1.1 million metric tons of carbon valued at CAD$25.0 million. In addition, these trees remove about 46,700 metric tons of carbon per year (CAD$1.1 million per year) and about 1,905 metric tons of air pollution per year (CAD$16.9 million per year). Trees in Toronto are estimated to reduce annual residential energy costs by CAD$9.7 million per year. The compensatory value is estimated at CAD$7.1 billion. Information on the structure and functions of the urban forest can be used to improve and augment support for urban forest management programs and to integrate urban forests within plans to improve environmental quality in the Toronto area.

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    Nowak, David J.; Hoehn, Robert E. III; Bodine, Allison R.; Greenfield, Eric J.; Ellis, Alexis; Endreny, Theodore A.; Yang, Yang; Zhou, Tian; Henry, Ruthanne. 2013. Assessing urban forest effects and values: Toronto's urban forest. Resour. Bull. NRS-79. Newtown Square, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northern Research Station. 59 p.


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    urban forestry, ecosystem services, air pollution removal, carbon sequestration, tree value

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