Micronized and nano-copper (Cu)-based and arsenic and chromium-free systems have received much attention for wood protection in recent years. Because they have different fixation, and micro-distribution properties, such copper systems may be more or less subject to release using known remediation methods than soluble forms of Cu. This study evaluated Cu recovery from wood treated with micronized- or nano-Cu via chemical extraction, and determined optimum release rates of Cu from micronized- and nano-Cu-treated wood compared with the release rates from soluble Cu-based wood preservatives. Chemical remediation in the study included chelating agents EDTA, oxalic acid, bioxalate, and D-gluconic acid at different durations, pH, and concentration levels to remove Cu from treated wood along with distilled water as controls. Cu removal rates increased from around 60% to over 95% when bioxalate was employed in the extraction process for all extraction durations. In extractions of nano CuO-treated wood for 24h, oxalic acid was able to remove 95% of Cu; however, bioxalate was able to remove somewhat less Cu. Bioxalate was, on the other hand, more effective than oxalic acid in removing Cu from ACQ-D, MCQ, MCA, CA-C and Cu-Et-treated wood. D-gluconic acid extractions resulted in the lowest Cu removal rate for nano-CuO. As the pH of D-gluconic acid was reduced from 10 to 2, the percentage Cu removal considerably was improved except for nano CuO. Results suggested that there is no distinctive difference in Cu removal rates among ACQ-D/MCQ, CA-C/MCA and Cu-Et wood preservatives. Nano-CuO was found to be resistant against EDTA extractions. Since it is a weak, noncorrosive, nonvolatile, nontoxic, biodegradable and inexpensive organic acid, D-gluconic acid can be used as an alternative to commercial EDTA and bioxalate in chemical remediation of Cu-treated waste wood.
Kartal, S. Nami; Terzi, Evren; Woodward, Bessie; Clausen, Carol A.; Lebow, Stan T. 2013. Removal of nano- and micronized-copper from treated wood by chelating agents. In: Proceedings IRG annual meeting; The International Research Group on Wood Protection, section 5, Sustainability and Environment; IRG/WP 13-50294; 2013. 15 p.