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    Author(s): Byung-Dae Park; Charles R. Frihart; Yan Yu; Adya P. Singh
    Date: 2013
    Source: EUROPEAN POLYMER JOURNAL, Corrected proof. doi:10.1016/j.eurpolymj.2013.06.013 Park B-D et al. Hardness evaluation of cured urea–formaldehyde resins with different formaldehyde/urea mole ratios using nanoindentation method. Eur Polym J (2013),; 2013; 6 p.
    Publication Series: Scientific Journal (JRNL)
    Station: Forest Products Laboratory
    PDF: Download Publication  (376.69 KB)


    To understand the influence of formaldehyde/urea (F/U) mole ratio on the properties of urea–formaldehyde (UF) resins, this study investigated hardness of cured UF resins with different F/U mole ratios using a nanoindentation method. The traditional Brinell hardness (HB) method was also used for comparison. The HB of cured UF resin films with different F/U mole ratios was determined after exposing the films to different post-curing temperatures. The nanoindentation method was employed for these films to measure Meyer hardness (HM) and reduced modulus (Er) which have been used to calculate the elastic modulus (Es) of cured UF resins. As the F/U mole ratio decreased, the HB decreased continuously, indicating a less rigid network structure in low F/U mole ratio UF resins. The higher the post-curing temperature, the greater the value of HB. The HM value also showed a similar trend as a function of F/U mole ratio. However, the Er and Es did not show a consistent trend as exhibited by HM and HB. Both HM and Er showed much greater variation in the coefficient of variation (COV) at lower F/U mole ratios 1.0 and 1.2, indicating a more heterogeneous composition of these resins. Linear relationships between HM and Er indicate that heterogeneity of the surface composition of samples contributes greatly to variations in the measured values. This variability is discussed in terms of crystal structures present in the cured UF resins of low F/U mole ratios.

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    Park, Byung-Dae; Frihart, Charles R.; Yu, Yan; Singh, Adya P. 2013. Hardness evaluation of cured urea-formaldehyde resins with different formaldehyde/urea mole ratios using nanoindentation method. European Polymer Journal Volume 49, 2013; pp. 3089-3094.


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    Urea–formaldehyde resin, Hardness, Modulus, Nanoindentation, Crystal structure

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