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    This study conducted an investigation of the effect of lignosulfonate (LS) on enzymatic saccharification of lignocelluloses. Two commercial LSs and one laboratory sulfonated kraft lignin were applied to Whatman paper, dilute acid and SPORL (sulfite pretreatment to overcome recalcitrance of lignocelluloses) pretreated aspen, and kraft alkaline and SPORL pretreated lodgepole pine. All three lignin samples inhibited cellulose saccharification of Whatman paper, but enhanced the saccharification of the four lignocellulosic substrates. The level of enhancement was related to the molecular weight and degree of sulfonation of the lignin as well as the substrate lignin structure. When different molecular weight (MW) fractions of one commercial LS (SXP), generated from sulfite pulping of hardwood, were applied to the Whatman paper, the large MW fraction (SXP1) with the lowest degree of sulfonation inhibited cellulose saccharification while the intermediate (SXP2) and smallest (SXP3) MW fractions enhanced saccharification. All MW fractions enhanced saccharification of the four lignocellulosic substrates with maximal enhancement by the smallest MW fraction, SXP3. The enhancement was most significant for the kraft lodgepole pine substrate and least significant for the SPORL pretreated lodgepole pine using all three LS and SXP fractions. The results suggest that LS acts as a surfactant to enhance pure cellullose saccharification. When LS is applied to lignocelluloses, it acts as a surfactant to block bound lignin from binding cellulase nonproductively leading to enhanced saccharification.

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    Zhou, Haifeng; Lou, Hongming; Yang, Dongjie; Zhu, J.Y.; Qiu, Xueqing. 2013. Lignosulfonate to enhance enzymatic saccharification of lignocelluloses: Role of molecular weight and substrate lignin. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research. 52: 8464-8470.


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    Enzymatic hydrolysis/saccharification, nonproductive/nonspecific binding, lignosulfonate, cellulase, lignocelluloses

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