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    Author(s): Patricia L. Andrews; Miguel G. Cruz; Richard C. Rothermel
    Date: 2013
    Source: International Journal of Wildland Fire. doi:
    Publication Series: Scientific Journal (JRNL)
    Station: Rocky Mountain Research Station
    PDF: Download Publication  (1.31 MB)


    The Rothermel surface fire spread model includes a wind speed limit, above which predicted rate of spread is constant. Complete derivation of the wind limit as a function of reaction intensity is given, along with an alternate result based on a changed assumption. Evidence indicates that both the original and the revised wind limits are too restrictive. Wind limit is based in part on data collected on the 7 February 1967 Tasmanian grassland fires. A reanalysis of the data indicates that these fires might not have been spreading in fully cured continuous grasslands, as assumed. In addition, more recent grassfire data do not support the wind speed limit. The authors recommend that, in place of the current wind limit, rate of spread be limited to effective midflame wind speed. The Rothermel model is the foundation of many wildland fire modelling systems. Imposition of the wind limit can significantly affect results and potentially influence fire and fuel management decisions.

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    Andrews, Patricia L.; Cruz, Miguel G.; Rothermel, Richard C. 2013. Examination of the wind speed limit function in the Rothermel surface fire spread model. International Journal of Wildland Fire. doi:


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    fire behaviour models, fuel model, grassfire, midflame wind speed, reaction intensity, wind adjustment factor

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