Skip to Main Content
U.S. Forest Service
Caring for the land and serving people

United States Department of Agriculture

Home > Search > Publication Information

  1. Share via EmailShare on FacebookShare on LinkedInShare on Twitter
    Dislike this pubLike this pub
    Author(s): John R. Squires; Lucretia E. Olson; David L. Turner; Nicholas J. DeCesare; Jay A. Kolbe
    Date: 2012
    Source: Wildlife Biology. 18: 215-224.
    Publication Series: Scientific Journal (JRNL)
    Station: Rocky Mountain Research Station
    PDF: Download Publication  (579.76 KB)


    We used snow-tracking surveys to determine the probability of detecting Canada lynx Lynx canadensis in known areas of lynx presence in the northern Rocky Mountains, Montana, USA during the winters of 2006 and 2007. We used this information to determine the minimum number of survey replicates necessary to infer the presence and absence of lynx in areas of similar lynx density (approximately 2.8 lynx/100 km2) with confidence. The probability of detecting lynx in mountainous habitats that support resident populations was 0.80-0.99 when surveys were conducted on an 838 km2 grid with 10 km of search effort per cell. Snow-track surveys were highly successful at detecting the presence of Canada lynx over large landscapes. Two survey replicates established absence of Canada lynx with 95% certainty. The high probability of detection associated with snow-track surveys makes thismethod useful for documenting populations of Canada lynx in areas where their status is uncertain.

    Publication Notes

    • You may send email to to request a hard copy of this publication.
    • (Please specify exactly which publication you are requesting and your mailing address.)
    • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.


    Squires, John R.; Olson, Lucretia E.; Turner, David L.; DeCesare, Nicholas J.; Kolbe, Jay A. 2012. Estimating detection probability for Canada lynx Lynx canadensis using snow-track surveys in the northern Rocky Mountains, Montana, USA. Wildlife Biology. 18: 215-224.


    Canada lynx, detection probability, forest carnivores, Lynx canadensis, monitoring, snow-track surveys

    Related Search

    XML: View XML
Show More
Show Fewer
Jump to Top of Page