Skip to Main Content
U.S. Forest Service
Caring for the land and serving people

United States Department of Agriculture

Home > Search > Publication Information

  1. Share via EmailShare on FacebookShare on LinkedInShare on Twitter
    Dislike this pubLike this pub
    Author(s): Yucheng Peng; Douglas J. Gardner; Yousoo Han; Alper Kiziltas; Zhiyong Cai; Mandla A. Tshabalala
    Date: 2013
    Source: Cellulose, 2013; 14 p.
    Publication Series: Scientific Journal (JRNL)
    Station: Forest Products Laboratory
    PDF: Download Publication  (699.59 KB)


    The effect of drying method on selected material properties of nanocellulose was investigated. Samples of nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) and cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) were each subjected to four separate drying methods: air-drying, freeze-drying, spray-drying, and supercritical-drying. The thermal stability and crystallinity of the dried nanocellulose were evaluated using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and X-ray diffraction. Supercritical-drying produced NFCs with the least thermal stability and the lowest crystallinity index. Air-drying or spray-drying produced NFCs which were more thermally stable compared with freeze-dried NFCs. The CNCs dried by the three methods (air-drying, freeze-drying, and spray-drying) have similar onset temperature of thermal degradation. The different drying methods resulted in various char weight percentages at 600 °C for the dried NFCs or CNCs from TGA measurements. The dried NFCs are pure cellulose I while the dried CNCs consist of cellulose I and II. The calculated crystallinity indices differ with each drying method. The cellulose II content in CNCs changes as a function of drying method. For the application of nanocellulose in non polar thermoplastics, spray-dried products are recommended according to their higher thermal stability and higher crystallinity index.

    Publication Notes

    • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.


    Peng, Yucheng; Gardner, Douglas J.; Han, Yousoo; Kiziltas, Alper; Cai, Zhiyong; Tshabalala, Mandla A. 2013. Influence of drying method on the material properties of nanocellulose I: thermostability and crystallinity. Cellulose. 20(5): 2379-2392.


    Google Scholar


    nanofibrillated cellulose. cellulose nanocrystal, thermostability, crystallinity

    Related Search

    XML: View XML
Show More
Show Fewer
Jump to Top of Page