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    Author(s): Yigen Chen; Tom. W. Coleman; Michael. I. Jones; Mary. L. Flint; Steven. J. Seybold
    Date: 2013
    Source: Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata. 149(1): 57–66
    Publication Series: Scientific Journal (JRNL)
    PDF: Download Publication  (573.31 KB)

    Description

    Adults of the invasive goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus auroguttatus Schaeffer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), consumed foliar weight in no-choice feeding tests of, in descending order, California black oak Quercus kelloggii Newb., Engelmann oak, Quercus engelmannii Greene, coast live oak, Quercus agrifolia Née, and canyon live oak, Quercus chrysolepis Liebm. (Fagaceae). Furthermore, significantly more foliar area was consumed of Q. kelloggii than of Q. chrysolepis. In dual-choice feeding tests with isolated leaf disks, A. auroguttatus consumed significantly more foliar weight and area of Q. kelloggii relative to the other three oak species, and more foliar weight of Q. agrifolia than of Q. chrysolepis. In dual-choice feeding tests with leaves on small branches, A. auroguttatus consumed more foliar weight of Q. kelloggii than of Q. engelmannii and Q. agrifolia. Thus, multiple experiments suggested that adults of A. auroguttatus preferred the foliage of Q. kelloggii over that of the other three oak species, and among the other three species they did not appear to have a strong feeding preference. Factor analysis reduced the quantities of 13 foliar nutrients into two new variables (factor 1 and factor 2). Factor 1 was weighted heavily on the quantities of nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, potassium, zinc, and copper, whereas factor 2 was weighted heavily on the quantities of zinc, iron, and aluminum. Factor 1 varied by oak species, with Q. kelloggii having a higher factor 1 nutrient content than the other three species. Factor 2 response was higher in Q. kelloggii, Q. agrifolia, and Q. engelmannii than in Q. chrysolepis. The collective effects of four macronutrients (nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and potassium) and two micronutrients (zinc and copper) suggest that these might be the nutrients directing preferential feeding of A. auroguttatus adults on the foliage of Q. kelloggii. Leaf toughness might also play an important role in feeding preference. Female A. auroguttatus did not show an ovipositional preference among the four oak species.

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    Citation

    Chen, Yigen.; Coleman, Tom. W.; Jones, Michael. I.; Flint, Mary. L.; Seybold, Steven. J. 2013. Foliar nutrients explain goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus auroguttatus, adult feeding preference among four California oak species. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata.149(1): 57–66.

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    Keywords

    Buprestidae, Coleoptera, Fagaceae, invasive species, oviposition, phloem/xylem borer, Quercus spp.

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