Skip to Main Content
U.S. Forest Service
Caring for the land and serving people

United States Department of Agriculture

Home > Search > Publication Information

  1. Share via EmailShare on FacebookShare on LinkedInShare on Twitter
    Dislike this pubLike this pub
    Author(s): Daniel J. Yelle
    Date: 2013
    Source: Proceedings from the Adhesion Society Meeting, Daytona Beach, FL, March 3-6, 2013; 4 p.
    Publication Series: Full Proceedings
    Station: Forest Products Laboratory
    PDF: Download Publication  (2.28 MB)


    Some extensively used wood adhesives, such as pMDI (polymeric methylene diphenyl diisocyanate) and PF (phenol formaldehyde) have shown excellent adhesion properties with wood. However, distinguishing whether the strength is due to physical bonds (i.e., van der Waals, London, or hydrogen bond forces) or covalent bonds between the adherend and the adhesive is not fully understood. Previous studies, where pMDI model compounds were reacted with wood, showed that carbamate (urethane) formation with wood polymers is only possible when: 1. the number of moles of isocyanate is significantly higher than the moles of water molecules in the wood, 2. high temperatures are used, and 3. the isocyanate-based compound is of low molecular weight [1]. A complementary study confirmed that covalent bond formation between a pMDI adhesive and wood does not occur [2]. PF adhesive, like pMDI, has shown strong evidence for wood cell wall infiltration [3-8]. Thus, there is a definite need to discern how wood cell wall polymers interact with PF adhesive on a molecular and Ă…ngstrom scale. This is especially important to understand when attempting to utilize lignin byproducts as PF resin substitutes.

    Publication Notes

    • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.


    Yelle, Daniel J. 2013. Elucidating how wood adhesives bond to wood cell walls using high-resolution solution-state NMR spectroscopy. In: Proceedings of the 36th Annual Meeting of the Adhesion Society. 2013 March 3-6; Daytona Beach, FL. Bethesda, MD: The Adhesion Society Inc. 4 p. Available online at


    Phenol formaldehyde, PF, Lignin, NMR, beta-aryl ether, phenylcoumaran

    Related Search

    XML: View XML
Show More
Show Fewer
Jump to Top of Page