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    Abstract: Large, high-severity wildfires remove vegetation cover and expose mineral soil, ofen causing erosion and runoff during postfire rain events to increase dramatically. Land-management agencies in the United States are required to assess site conditions after wildfire and, where necessary, implement emergency watershed rehabilitation measures to help stabilize soil; control movement of water, sediment, and debris; prevent permanent impairment of ecosystem structure and function; and mitigate significant threats to human health, safety, life, property, or downstream values. One of the most common postfire treatments is broadcast seeding of grasses, usually from aircraft. Non-native annual or perennial grasses typically are used to provide quick, temporary ground cover to hold soil in place until native plants are reestablished. Critics argue that seeded grasses compete with native vegetation and do not effectively reduce erosion. Few data exist on the effectiveness of erosion control; less than half of the studies I reviewed showed reduced sediment movement with seeding. In all vegetation types, successful growth of seeded grasses—enough to affect erosion—appears to displace native or naturalized species, including shrub and tree seedlings. Due to the competitiveness of seeded grasses, they are used to attempt suppression of noxious weeds in some postfire seeding operations. In burned sagebrush range, postfire seeding is frequently used to replace non-native cheatgrass ( Bromus tectorum ) with native or introduced bunchgrasses, with at least short-term success. In recent years, native species and sterile cereal grains have increasingly been used for seeding. Use of aerially applied straw mulch has increased as well, with the risk of weed introduction from contaminated bales. More research on the effectiveness and ecosystem impacts of these alternatives is needed.

    Resumen: Los incendios grandes, de alta severidad, remueven la vegetación y exponen el suelo mineral, con lo que la erosión y el escurrimiento incrementan dramáticamente durante eventos de lluvia post-incendio. Las agencias de gestión de tierras en los Estados Unidos deben evaluar las condiciones del sitio después del incendio y, donde sea necesario, implementar medidas de emergencia para la rehabilitación de cuencas de agua para ayudar a estabilizar el suelo; el control del movimiento de agua, sedimentos y detritos; la prevención de la degradación permanente de la estructura y función del ecosistema y la mitigación de amenazas significativas a la salud, seguridad, vida y propiedades humanas y a valores río abajo. Uno de los tratamientos post-incendio más comunes es la siembra de pastos, usualmente desde aviones. Típicamente se utilizan pastos anuales o perennes no nativos para proporcionar cobertura rápida, temporal para mantener al suelo en su lugar hasta que se puedan reestablecer plantas nativas. Los críticos argumentan que los pastos sembrados compiten con la vegetación nativa y no reducen la erosión efectivamente. Existen escasos datos sobre efectividad de control de erosión; menos de la mitad de los estudios que revisé mostraron reducción de movilidad de sedimentos con la siembra. En todos los tipos de vegetación, el crecimiento exitoso de pastos sembrados — suficiente para afectar a la erosión—parece desplazar a especies nativas o naturalizadas, incluyendo arbustos y plántulas de árboles. Debido a la competitividad de pastos sembrados, son utilizados para intentar la supresión de hierbas nocivas en algunas operaciones de siembra post-incendio. La siembra post-incendio en áreas de artemisa se utiliza frecuentemente, exitosamente por lo menos en el corto plazo, para reemplazar Bromus tectorum no nativos con

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    Citation

    Beyers, Jan L. 2004. Postfire seeding for erosion control: Effectiveness and impacts on native plant communities. Conservation Biology 18: 947-956.

    Keywords

    annual ryegrass, burned area rehabilitation, cereal, grains, grasses, mulchballico anual, cereales, mantillo, pastos, rehabilitación de área quemada

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https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/45186