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    This study examines the density of polluting industry by neighborhoods in Baltimore over the long term, from 1950 to 2010, to determine if high pollution burdens correspond spatially with expected demographic and housing variables predicted in the environmental justice literature. For 1960-1980 we use data on heavy industry from Dun and Bradstreet directories and for 1990-2010 the US EPA's Toxics Release Inventory to calculate a Hazards Density Index. Drawing on the decennial censuses for 1960-2010, we populate census tracts from corresponding years with data on race, ethnicity, educational attainment, income, and housing tenure.

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    Boone, Christopher G.; Fragkias, Michail; Buckley, Geoffrey L.; Grove, J. Morgan. 2014. A long view of polluting industry and environmental justice in Baltimore. Cities. 36: 41-49.


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    Environmental justice, Baltimore, Longitudinal, Toxics Release Inventory, Hazards Density Index, Sustainability

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