Skip to Main Content
U.S. Forest Service
Caring for the land and serving people

United States Department of Agriculture

Home > Search > Publication Information

  1. Share via EmailShare on FacebookShare on LinkedInShare on Twitter
    Dislike this pubLike this pub


    To determine if either herbaceous or woody plants are more competitive with longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) trees, four vegetation management treatments— check, herbaceous plant control (HPC), woody plant control (WPC), and HPC+WPC—were applied in newly established longleaf pine plantings in a randomized complete block design in two studies. Prescribed fire was repeatedly applied across both study sites, and pine measurements were continued for 12 years. Pine survival was not significantly different among the four treatments in either study. In Study 1, pines were taller on HPC+WPC plots than on checks, and pine basal area and volume per ha were greater on HPC and HPC+WPC plots than on checks. Volume per ha ranged from 45 m3/ha on checks to 70 m3/ha on HPC+WPC plots. The WPC treatment was ineffective. In Study 2, there were no significant basal area and volume per ha differences among the four treatments. Volume per ha ranged from 119 m3/ha on checks to 151 m3/ha on HPC+WPC plots after 12 years. In the thirteenth growing season, HPC+WPC plots had more surface area covered in litter than did checks, and there was less grass cover on HPC plots than on checks in Study 1. In Study 2, litter and plant cover in the understory were not significantly different among the four treatments. With the application of fire, HPC remained effective when basal area per ha did not exceed 14 m2/ha. WPC was not beneficial perhaps because prescribed fire was repeatedly applied making WPC unnecessary.

    Publication Notes

    • You may send email to to request a hard copy of this publication.
    • (Please specify exactly which publication you are requesting and your mailing address.)
    • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.


    Haywood, James D. 2013. Effects of herbaceous and woody plant control on longleaf pine growth and understory plant cover. Southern Journal of Applied Forestry. 37(2): 108-112.


    hexazinone, Pinus palustris, sethoxydim, triclopyr, vegetation management

    Related Search

    XML: View XML
Show More
Show Fewer
Jump to Top of Page