Skip to Main Content
U.S. Forest Service
Caring for the land and serving people

United States Department of Agriculture

Home > Search > Publication Information

  1. Share via EmailShare on FacebookShare on LinkedInShare on Twitter
    Dislike this pubLike this pub


    The quantity and characteristics of coarse woody debris (CWD) were examined in four distinct pine ecosystems of north-western (NW) Spain, NW Russia and the NW USA. Despite differences in species, ecological conditions and management histories, in all four ecosystems the mean snag volume was less than that of logs, most of the CWD mass was in an intermediate degree of decay, and mature stands had the greatest amount of CWD mass, followed by middle-age and then young stands. The CWD ratio (ratio of dead to live wood volume) ranged from 2.8% to 126.6%, depending on pine ecosystem and stand age, and was influenced by the type of natural and human disturbance. The difference in CWD amount and distribution among the regions studied reflected differences in disturbance history and management practices. Only in NW USA was the sample size large enough to examine the effect of disturbance type on CWD amount and distribution. There, fire and insect damage were found to considerably influence the amount of CWD in both lodgepole and ponderosa pine forests. Comparison of how different factors affect the amount and distribution of CWD in different ecosystems could be useful in developing ecologically sustainable forest management guidelines.

    Publication Notes

    • You may send email to to request a hard copy of this publication.
    • (Please specify exactly which publication you are requesting and your mailing address.)
    • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.


    Herrero, Celia; Krankina, Olga; Monleon, Vicente J.; Bravo, Felipe. 2014. Amount and distribution of coarse woody debris in pine ecosystems of north-western Spain, Russia and the United States. iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry. 7: 53-60.


    disturbance, lodgepole pine, dead wood, ponderosa pine, scots pine

    Related Search

    XML: View XML
Show More
Show Fewer
Jump to Top of Page