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    Author(s): Sera J. Zegre; Mark D. Needham; Linda E. Kruger; Randall S. Rosenberger
    Date: 2012
    Source: Managing Leisure. 17: 333–348
    Publication Series: Scientific Journal (JRNL)
    Station: Pacific Northwest Research Station
    PDF: View PDF  (213.26 KB)


    This article uses perceptions of commercial tour operators in Juneau, Alaska, to examine the extent to which the commercial outdoor recreation and tourism industry in this area reflects principles of McDonaldization—efficiency, calculability, predictability and control. Data from interviews with 23 operators suggest that this industry in Juneau illustrates these principles. The large-scale nature of this industry in the Juneau area necessitates elements of McDonaldization with examples such as the efficiency of short and packaged activities, the predictability of activities with certainty, the calculability of tour timeframes, and the control that the cruise industry exerts over commercial activities through contracts with tour operators. In contrast, evidence of customization and flexibility occurred alongside examples of McDonaldization, such as independent booking and customizable tours and interpretation. Implications of McDonaldization include increased number and diversity of visitors, as well as more outdoor activities characterized by improved accessibility, decreased duration, and increased certainty. Implications for theory, society, the environment, and visitor experiences are discussed.

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    Zegre, Sera J.; Needham, Mark D.; Kruger, Linda E.; Rosenberger, Randall S. 2012. McDonaldization and commercial outdoor recreation and tourism in Alaska. Managing Leisure. 17: 333–348.


    McDonaldization, outdoor recreation and tourism, commercial operators, cruise industry

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