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    Author(s): John M. Skelly; Donald D. Davis; William Merrill; E. Alan Cameron; H. Daniel Brown; David B. Drummond; Leon S., eds. Dochinger
    Date: 1987
    Source: Washington, DC: The Pennsylvania State University, for the USDA Forest Service. 122 p.
    Publication Series: Miscellaneous
    Station: Northern Research Station
    PDF: Download Publication  (64.22 MB)


    The purpose of this manual is to assist members of the National Vegetation Survey in recognizing air pollutant-induced injury and in identifying disease and insect damage that may be confused with air pollutant-induced injury to forest vegetation in the eastern United States. Ozone, sulfur dioxide, and, to a limited geographic extent, hydrogen fluoride, are all pollutants of concern in relation to forest vegetation; detailed descriptions of the injuries caused by these pollutants are presented herein. A second section of this manual has been prepared to assist the Survey in recognizing other major diseases, insects, and abiotic stresses that may be found at the survey plots. These disorders were chosen because their symptoms may be similar to those caused by air pollutants. Basic information and the most typical symptoms for each of these causes of stress are also presented photographically. It is important that both sections of this manual be consulted thoroughly to relate field symptoms accurately to the most likely cause of the observed symptoms. In all cases, the presence of biotic pathogens, insects, and other indicators of plant stress should be investigated and recorded.

    Publication Notes

    • Check the Northern Research Station web site to request a printed copy of this publication.
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    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.


    Skelly, John M.; Davis, Donald D.; Merrill, William; Cameron, E. Alan; Brown, H. Daniel; Drummond, David B.; Dochinger, Leon S., eds. 1987. Diagnosing injury to eastern forest trees. Washington, DC: The Pennsylvania State University, for the USDA Forest Service. 122 p.

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