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    Sodium lignosulfonate (LS) from sulfite pulping processing was used as a carbon source to synthesize graphene. LS was mixed with Fe nanoparticles (FeNPs) as a catalyst and thermally treated at 1000 °C for 1 h. The Raman spectrum and X-ray diffraction pattern suggested that graphene sheets were formed in LS thermally treated with FeNPs (Fe-HTLS). Scanning electron microscopy image of Fe-HTLS showed clusters of thin graphene sheets appearing in the form of nanoflowers. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy and electron reflection images provided further evidence of the formation of graphene in LS thermally treated in the presence of Fe catalyst.

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    Mun, Sung Phil; Cai, Zhiyong; Zhang, Jilei. 2013. Fe-catalyzed thermal conversion of sodium lignosulfonate to graphene. Materials Letters, 100, 2013; pp. 180-183.


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    Lignosulfonate, Sulfite pulping, Fe nanoparticles, Graphene, Thermal treatment, Raman spectrum

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