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    Author(s): Nathan P. HavillMichael E. MontgomeryMelody Keena
    Date: 2011
    Source: In: Onken, B.; Reardon, R. eds. Implementation and status of biological control of the hemlock woolly adelgid. FHTET-2011-04. Morgantown, WV: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service Forest Health Technology Enterprise Team: 3-14. Chapter 1.
    Publication Series: Book Chapter
    Station: Northern Research Station
    PDF: View PDF  (280.71 KB)

    Description

    The hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA), Adelges tsugae Annand (Hempitera: Adelgidae), threatens the health and sustainability of the native eastern North American hemlocks, Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carriere and T. caroliniana Engelman. The lineage of HWA that was introduced to the eastern United States came from Japan sometime prior to 1951, and did not co-evolve with eastern North American forest ecosystems (Havill et al. 2006). As a result, eastern hemlock species cannot adequately resist or tolerate the impacts of adelgid feeding, and the native community of natural enemies in eastern North America is not capable of maintaining HWA populations below damaging levels. This results in widespread death of hemlock trees, which is having serious consequences for biodiversity, ecosystem functions, and ornamental and urban resources.

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    Citation

    Havill, Nathan P.; Montgomery, Michael E.; Keena, Melody. 2011. Hemlock woolly adelgid and its hemlock hosts: A global perspective. In: Onken, B.; Reardon, R. eds. Implementation and status of biological control of the hemlock woolly adelgid. FHTET-2011-04. Morgantown, WV: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service Forest Health Technology Enterprise Team: 3-14. Chapter 1.

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