Skip to Main Content
Evolution of a short-term study of lodgepole pine dwarf mistletoe vectors that turned into a long-term study of the remarkable gray jay on the Fraser Experimental Forest,Colorado, 1982-2009Author(s): Thomas H. Nicholls
Source: In: Hayes, D.C.; Stout, S.L.; Crawford, R.H.; Hoover, A.P., eds. USDA Forest Service experimental forests and ranges research for the long term. New York, NY: Springer: 251-270.
Publication Series: Book Chapter
Station: Northern Research Station
PDF: Download Publication (2.0 MB)
DescriptionThis is a summary of a 5-year short-term study that evolved into 28 years of long-term research on the US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service's Fraser Experimental Forest in Colorado. The study was begun in 1982 by Forest Service Research Scientists Thomas H. Nicholls and Frank G. Hawksworth to determine the importance of mammal and bird vectors in the long-distance dissemination of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium americanum), an economically devastating forest disease of western forests. The original vector study evolved into a study of a plant growth regulator using ethephon for controlling small pockets of lodgepole pine dwarf mistletoe initiated by vector-disseminated seed. An in-depth study of the ecology of the most common vector of dwarf mistletoe, the gray jay (Persisoreus canadensis), followed. The gray jay study evolved into sub-studies on: radio-tracking gray jays between infected and healthy stands in 1983, the exotic West Nile virus in 2003, the development of a method to predict populations and habitat carrying capacities for gray jays by using modeling and geographic information systems techniques in 2005, the use of the polymerase chain reaction technique to sex gray jays for the first time in 2005, and determining the impact of the native mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) outbreak on gray jay habitat and population in 2009.
- Check the Northern Research Station web site to request a printed copy of this publication.
- Our on-line publications are scanned and captured using Adobe Acrobat.
- During the capture process some typographical errors may occur.
- Please contact Sharon Hobrla, firstname.lastname@example.org if you notice any errors which make this publication unusable.
- We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
- This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.
CitationNicholls, Thomas H. 2014. Evolution of a short-term study of lodgepole pine dwarf mistletoe vectors that turned into a long-term study of the remarkable gray jay on the Fraser Experimental Forest,Colorado, 1982-2009. In: Hayes, D.C.; Stout, S.L.; Crawford, R.H.; Hoover, A.P., eds. USDA Forest Service experimental forests and ranges research for the long term. New York, NY: Springer: 251-270.
KeywordsGray jay, Fraser experimental forest, Lodgepole pine, Dwarf mistletoe, Ethephon, Frank G. Hawksworth, Mountain pine beetle, Polymerase chain reaction, West Nile virus
- Effects of Arceuthobium americanum on twig growth of Pinus contorts.
- Interaction of an invasive bark beetle with a native forest pathogen: Potential effect of dwarf mistletoe on range expansion of mountain pine beetle in jack pine forests
- Effects of dwarf mistletoe on stand structure of lodgepole pine forests 21-28 years post-mountain pine beetle epidemic in central Oregon
XML: View XML