Skip to Main Content
U.S. Forest Service
Caring for the land and serving people

United States Department of Agriculture

Home > Search > Publication Information

  1. Share via EmailShare on FacebookShare on LinkedInShare on Twitter
    Dislike this pubLike this pub
    Author(s): Shan Gao; Xiping Wang; Lihai Wang
    Date: 2015
    Source: Holzforschung, Volume 69, Number 2, 2015; pp. 233–240.
    Publication Series: Scientific Journal (JRNL)
    Station: Forest Products Laboratory
    PDF: Download Publication  (1.2 MB)


    The response of dynamic and static modulus of elasticity (MOEdyn and MOEsta) of red pine small clear wood (25.4 × 25.4 × 407 mm3) within the temperature range -40 to 40°C has been investigated. The moisture content (MC) of the specimens ranged from 0 to 118%. The MOEdyn was calculated based on measured ultrasonic velocity (V) and wood density. The MOEsta was measured by static bending tests in a climate chamber between -40 and 40°C. The results indicate that both MOEdyn and MOEsta were affected by temperature and the MC. Above freezing point, MOE decreased linearly at a slow rate with increasing temperature. Below freezing point, MOE increased at a rapid rate with decreasing temperature. The MC-level had a significant effect on the MOE-temperature relationships. Temperature effect was much more significant in green wood than in dry wood. Analytical models were developed to predict the change of MOEdyn relative to that at 20°C in the case of acoustic measurements under different temperature conditions.

    Publication Notes

    • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.


    Gao, Shan; Wang, Xiping; Wang, Lihai. 2015. Modeling temperature effect on dynamic modulus of elasticity of red pine (Pinus resinosa) in frozen and non-frozen states. Holzforschung, Volume 69, Number 2, 2015; pp. 233–240.


    Google Scholar


    freezing point, ice formation, modulus of elasticity, moisture content, ultrasonic velocity

    Related Search

    XML: View XML
Show More
Show Fewer
Jump to Top of Page