Skip to Main Content
U.S. Forest Service
Caring for the land and serving people

United States Department of Agriculture

Home > Search > Publication Information

  1. Share via EmailShare on FacebookShare on LinkedInShare on Twitter
    Dislike this pubLike this pub
    Author(s): Ian D. Thompson; Joice Ferreira; Toby Gardner; Manuel Guariguata; Lian Pin Koh; Kimiko Okabe; Yude Pan; Christine B. Schmitt; Jason Tylianakis; Jos Barlow; Valerie Kapos; Werner A. Kurz; John A. Parrotta; Mark D. Spalding; Nathalie van Vliet
    Date: 2012
    Source: IUFRO World Series Volume 31. p. 21-51
    Publication Series: Book Chapter
    PDF: Download Publication  (0 B)


    REDD+ actions should be based on the best science and on the understanding that forests can provide more than a repository for carbon but also offer a wide range of services beneficial to people. Biodiversity underpins many ecosystem services, one of which is carbon sequestration, and individual species’ functional traits play an important role in determining ecological processes. Higher levels of biodiversity generally support greater levels of ecosystem service production than lower levels, and ecosystem properties, such as resilience, are important considerations when managing human-modified ecosystems. Tropical forests have high levels of biodiversity yet have experienced severe impacts from deforestation and degradation, with consequent losses of biodiversity and ecosystem processes that support the provision of ecosystem services, including carbon storage. Tropical montane and dry forests are especially vulnerable. In (sub-)tropical forests recovering from major disturbances, both carbon and biodiversity increase, but recovery rates diminish over time, and recovery of biodiversity is typically much slower than that of carbon. However, (sub-)tropical secondary forests are recognised for their biodiversity conservation values and as important carbon sinks. In many cases, anthropogenic factors – such as land use change, introduction of species or barriers to dispersal – can lead to the creation of ‘novel ecosystems’ that are distinct in species composition and functioning. The implications of these novel ecosystems for conserving ecological integrity and provision of ecosystem services remains poorly understood.

    Publication Notes

    • Check the Northern Research Station web site to request a printed copy of this publication.
    • Our on-line publications are scanned and captured using Adobe Acrobat.
    • During the capture process some typographical errors may occur.
    • Please contact Sharon Hobrla, if you notice any errors which make this publication unusable.
    • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.


    Thompson, Ian D.; Ferreira, Joice; Gardner, Toby; Guariguata, Manuel; Koh, Lian Pin; Okabe, Kimiko; Pan, Yude; Schmitt, Christine B.; Tylianakis, Jason; Barlow, Jos; Kapos, Valerie; Kurz, Werner A.; Parrotta, John. A.; Spalding, Mark D.; van Vliet, Nathalie. 2012. Forest biodiversity, carbon and other ecosystem services: relationships and impacts of deforestation and forest degradation (Chapter 2). In: Parrotta, J.A., Wildburger, C and Mansourian, S. (eds.), Understanding relationships between biodiversity, carbon, forests and people: The key to achieving REDD+ objectives. A global assessment report prepared by the Global Forest Expert Panel on Biodiversity,Forest Management, and REDD+. IUFRO World Series Volume 31. Vienna. 161 p.

    Related Search

    XML: View XML
Show More
Show Fewer
Jump to Top of Page