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    Author(s): Christopher J. Fettig; Kurt K. Allen; Robert R. Borys; John Christopherson; Christopher P. Dabney; Thomas J. Eager; Kenneth E. Gibson; Elizabeth G. Hebertson; Daniel F. Long; A. Steven Munson; Patrick J. Shea; Sheri L. Smith; Michael I. Haverty
    Date: 2006
    Source: Journal of Economic Entomology. 99: 1691-1698
    Publication Series: Scientific Journal (JRNL)
    Station: Pacific Southwest Research Station
    PDF: View PDF  (98.45 KB)

    Description

    High-value trees, such as those located in residential, recreational, or administrative sites, are particularly susceptible to bark beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) attack as a result of increased amounts of stress associated with drought, soil compaction, mechanical injury, or vandalism. Tree losses in these unique environments generally have a substantial impact. The value of these individual trees, cost of removal, and loss of aesthetics may justify protection until the main thrust of a bark beetle infestation subsides. This situation emphasizes the need for assuring that effective insecticides are available for individual tree protection. In this study, we assess the efficacy of bifenthrin (Onyx™) and carbaryl (Sevin® SL) for protecting: ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex. Laws., from western pine beetle, Dendroctonus brevicomis LeConte in California, mountain pine beetle, D. ponderosae Hopkins in South Dakota, and Ips spp. in Arizona; lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud., from D. ponderosae in Montana; pinyon, P. edulis Engelm. in Colorado and P. monophylla Torr. & Frem. in Nevada from pinyon ips, I. confusus (LeConte); and Engelmann spruce, Picea engelmannii Parry ex. Engelm. from spruce beetle, D. rufipennis (Kirby) in Utah. Few trees were attacked by Ips spp. in Arizona and that study was discontinued. Sevin® SL (2.0%) was effective for protecting P. ponderosa, P. contorta and P. monophylla for two field seasons. Estimates of efficacy could not be made during the second field season in P. edulis and P. engelmannii due to insufficient mortality in untreated, baited control trees. Two field seasons of efficacy was demonstrated in P. ponderosa/D. brevicomis and P. monophylla for 0.06% Onyx™. We conclude that Onyx™ is an effective individual tree protection tool, but repeated annual applications may be required in some systems if multi-year control is desired.

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    Citation

    Fettig, C.J.; Allen, K.K.; Borys, R.R.; Christopherson, J.; Dabney, C.P.; Eager, T.J.; Gibson, K.E.; Hebertson, E.G.; Long, D.F.; Munson, A. Steven; S., Patrick J.; Smith, S.L.; Haverty, M.I. 2006. Effectiveness of bifenthrin (Onyx™) and carbaryl (Sevin® SL) for protecting individual, high-value trees from bark beetle attack (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) in the western United States. Journal of Economic Entomology. 99: 1691-1698.

    Keywords

    bifenthrin, carbaryl, Pinus, Picea, Dendroctonus

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