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    Author(s): Zhi Xu; David N. Bengston
    Date: 1997
    Source: Society & Natural Resources. 10(1): 43-59.
    Publication Series: Scientific Journal (JRNL)
    Station: North Central Research Station
    PDF: Download Publication  (1.2 MB)


    This study empirically analyzes the evolution of national forest values in recent years. Four broad categories of forest values are distinguished: economic/utilitarian, life support, aesthetic, and moral/spiritual. A computerized content analysis procedure was developed to identify expressions of these four forest values related to the national forests. With this procedure, changes in the forest value systems of three groups—forestry professionals, mainstream environmentalists, and the general public—were tracked over time. Forest value systems were found to have shifted over the study period, and significant differences were found between the forest value systems of the three groups. Implications of this study for ecosystem management are discussed.

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    Xu, Zhi; Bengston, David N. 1997. Trends in national forest values among forestry professionals, environmentalists, and the news media, 1982-1993. Society & Natural Resources. 10(1): 43-59.


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    content analysis, ecosystem management, forest values, generalized logit model, national forests

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