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    Author(s): Toni Antikainen; Anti Rohumaa; Christopher G. Hunt; Mari Levirinne; Mark Hughes
    Date: 2015
    Source: Eur. J. Wood Prod. Volume 73, 2015; pp. 69–75.
    Publication Series: Scientific Journal (JRNL)
    Station: Forest Products Laboratory
    PDF: Download Publication  (0 B)


    In plywood production, human operators find it difficult to precisely monitor the spread rate of adhesive in real-time. In this study, macroscopic fluorescence was used to estimate spread rate (SR) of urea formaldehyde adhesive on birch (Betula pendula Roth) veneer. This method could be an option when developing automated real-time SR measurement for plywood or processes. Estimation of SR was shown where adhesive was spread uniformly and also where adhesive was spread as lines. For uniform spreading, average intensity of the fluorescence image predicted the SR of adhesive well, with an R2 of 0.97 and root mean square error (RMSE) of 13 g m-2. For line-spread adhesive, line average intensity and width were used to estimate SR, and all these features predicted SR well. Furthermore, adhesive penetration into veneer over time could be detected from fluorescence images taken over time.

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    Antikainen, Toni; Rohumaa, Anti; Hunt, Christopher G.; Levirinne, Mari; Hughes, Mark. 2015. Estimating the spread rate of urea formaldehyde adhesive on birch (Betula pendula Roth) veneer using fluorescence. Eur. J. Wood Prod. Volume 73, 2015; pp. 69–75.


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    Adhesive, plywood, spread rate, fluorescence, automation

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