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    Author(s): Ivan Simkovic; Anne FullerRobert White
    Date: 2011
    Source: J Therm Anal Calorim, Volume 107, 2012; pp. 519-526.
    Publication Series: Scientific Journal (JRNL)
    Station: Forest Products Laboratory
    PDF: Download Publication  (405.3 KB)


    Paper sheets impregnated with flame retardants made from agricultural residues and other additives were studied with the cone calorimeter. The use of sugar beet ethanol eluent (SBE), CaCl2, and ZnCl2 lowered the peak rate of heat release (PRHR) the most in comparison to water treated material. The average effective heat of combustion (AEHC) was lowered by most of our treatments with the exception of BMIC (butylmethylimidazolium chloride)/starch (BMS). The average mass loss rate was lowered by all the treatments, but the most by the use of ZnCl2 and CaCl2 treatments. Mass losses were the least with SBE, CaCl2/NaOH/starch, and CaCl2/NaOH treatments. The BMS sample exhibited the greatest total heat release while SBE samples gave the smallest value of the parameter. The flame retarding effect of SBE was ascribed to the presence of ferulates which prevented the formation of volatile products by condensinginto polycyclic aromatic residue.

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    Simkovic, Ivan; Fuller, Anne; White, Robert. 2011. Flammability studies of impregnated paper sheets. J Therm Anal Calorim, Volume 107, 2012; pp. 519-526.


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    Agricultural residues, Cone calorimeter, Flame retardance, Composites, Intumescence

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