Skip to Main Content
U.S. Forest Service
Caring for the land and serving people

United States Department of Agriculture

Home > Search > Publication Information

  1. Share via EmailShare on FacebookShare on LinkedInShare on Twitter
    Dislike this pubLike this pub
    Author(s): Edward A. Stone; JunJie Wu; Ralph Alig
    Date: 2015
    Source: Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-905. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 43 p.
    Publication Series: General Technical Report (GTR)
    Station: Pacific Northwest Research Station
    PDF: View PDF  (3.62 MB)


    This report investigates the interactions between household location decisions and community characteristics, including green space. Household location decisions are a primary driver of land-use change, and collective location decisions affect community characteristics. At the same time, community characteristics affect location decisions. Neighborhoods or communities that have well-managed green space programs are more attractive to residents, a two-way interaction that tends to be self-reinforcing. Communities with high amenities and public services attract high-income residents, enhancing the tax base and the provision of amenities and services. This report surveys the literature investigating these interactions and explores several applicable empirical approaches for the Portland, Oregon, and Vancouver, Washington, metropolitan area.

    The emergence of spatially explicit data and software facilitates the investigation of relationships between location choice and community characteristics. Using data from Portland, Oregon, and Vancouver, Washington, this report details several possible empirical approaches, including instrumental variables, reduced-form estimation, and treatment effects. The primary challenge for the researcher is the endogeneity of community characteristics.

    Publication Notes

    • You may send email to to request a hard copy of this publication.
    • (Please specify exactly which publication you are requesting and your mailing address.)
    • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.


    Stone, Edward A.; Wu, JunJie; Alig, Ralph. 2015. Urban green space and vibrant communities: exploring the linkage in the Portland Vancouver area. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-905. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 43 p.


    Google Scholar


    Amenities, community characteristics, population change, residential location choices, urban green space.

    Related Search

    XML: View XML
Show More
Show Fewer
Jump to Top of Page