Skip to Main Content
U.S. Forest Service
Caring for the land and serving people

United States Department of Agriculture

Home > Search > Publication Information

  1. Share via EmailShare on FacebookShare on LinkedInShare on Twitter
    Dislike this pubLike this pub

    Description

    Under-story-overstory relationships were examined over 7 different growing stock levels(GSLs) of 2 size classes(saplings,8-10 cm d.b.h. and poles, 15-18 cm d.b.h.) of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) in the Black Hills, South Dakota. Generally, production of graminoids, forbs, and shrubs was similar between sapling and pole stands. Trends among GSLs were also similar between these tree size classes. Graminoids and forbs were most abundant in clearcuts and the 5 m2/ha basal area. Intermediate amounts were produced at GSLs of 14-23 m2/ha and lowest in unthinned stands which had basal areas ranging from 27-33 m2/ ha and 37-40 m2/ha in sapling and pole stands, respectively. Total understory production followed the same trends. Shrubs, however, appeared to produce most at intermediate stocking levels but were variable. Grainoid and forb production were estimated by the model logY=a+bX. Relationships for total production were better described by Y=a+bX. However, variability of shrub production precluded selection of a single model; the best model varied between tree size classes. Standard errors of the estimate indicate that reasonably good predictive models can be developed for pole and sapling stands considered separately or combined. When years were combined, however, SEs increased markedly, indicating less reliable models.

    Publication Notes

    • You may send email to rmrspubrequest@fs.fed.us to request a hard copy of this publication.
    • (Please specify exactly which publication you are requesting and your mailing address.)
    • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.

    Citation

    Uresk, Daniel W.; Severson, Kieth E. 1989. Understory-overstory relationships in ponderosa pine forests, Black Hills, South Dakota. Journal of Range Management. 42(3): 203-208.

    Keywords

    plant production, forage, models, trees, basal area

    Related Search


    XML: View XML
Show More
Show Fewer
Jump to Top of Page
https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/48217