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    Author(s): Liqing Wei; Armando G. McDonald; Nicole M. Stark
    Date: 2015
    Source: Biomacromolecules
    Publication Series: Scientific Journal (JRNL)
    Station: Forest Products Laboratory
    PDF: Download Publication  (6.89 MB)


    Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) was grafted onto cellulose fiber by dicumyl peroxide (DCP) radical initiation via in situ reactive extrusion. The yield of the grafted (cellulose-g-PHB) copolymer was recorded and grafting efficiency was found to be dependent on the reaction time and DCP concentration. The grafting mechanism was investigated by electron spin resonance (ESR) analysis and showed the presence of radicals produced by DCP radical initiation. The grafted copolymer structure was determined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) showed that the cellulose-g-PHB copolymer formed a continuous phase between the surfaces of cellulose and PHB as compared to cellulose-PHB blends. The relative crystallinity of cellulose and PHB were quantified from Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra and X-ray diffraction (XRD) results, while the absolute degree of crystallinity was evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The reduction of crystallinity indicated the grafting reaction occurred not just in the amorphous region but also slightly in crystalline regions of both cellulose and PHB. The smaller crystal sizes suggested the brittleness of PHB was decreased. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) showed that the grafted copolymer was stabilized relative to PHB. By varying the reaction parameters the compositions (%PHB and %cellulose) of resultant cellulose-g-PHB copolymer are expected to be manipulated to obtain tunable properties.

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    Wei, Liqing; McDonald, Armando G.; Stark, Nicole M. 2015. Grafting of Bacterial Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) onto Cellulose via In Situ Reactive Extrusion with Dicumyl Peroxide. Biomacromolecules. 16(3): 1040-1049.


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    PHB, cellulose, reactive extrusion, grafting, thermal properties, NMR, FTIR

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