Skip to Main Content
U.S. Forest Service
Caring for the land and serving people

United States Department of Agriculture

Home > Search > Publication Information

  1. Share via EmailShare on FacebookShare on LinkedInShare on Twitter
    Dislike this pubLike this pub
    Author(s): J. E. Lundquist; R. A. Sommerfeld
    Date: 2002
    Source: Landscape Ecology. 17(5): 445-454.
    Publication Series: Scientific Journal (JRNL)
    Station: Rocky Mountain Research Station
    PDF: View PDF  (455.01 KB)


    Various disturbances such as disease and management practices cause canopy gaps that change patterns of forest stand structure. This study examined the usefulness of digital image analysis using aerial photos, Fourier Tranforms, and cluster analysis to investigate how different spatial statistics are affected by spatial scale. The specific aims were to: 1) evaluate how a Fourier filter could be used to classify canopy gap sizes objectively, 2) determine which statistics might be useful for detecting and measuring disturbance impacts, and 3) examine the potential for this method to determine spatial domains in a pair of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) stands in the Black Hills of South Dakota, USA. The eventual goal is to develop an operational method of assessing the impacts of natural disturbances such as disease. Results indicated that several spatial metrics discriminated between harvested and unharvested stands. We hypothesize that these metrics will be useful as spatial measures of disease impact if the analyses are performed on specific size classes of forest gaps.

    Publication Notes

    • You may send email to to request a hard copy of this publication.
    • (Please specify exactly which publication you are requesting and your mailing address.)
    • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.


    Lundquist, J. E.; Sommerfeld, R. A. 2002. Use of Fouler Transforms to define landscape scales of analysis for disturbances: A case study of thinned and unthinned forest stands. Landscape Ecology. 17(5): 445-454.


    Fouler Transforms, digital image analysis, aerial photos, cluster analysis, spatial statistics, forest gaps

    Related Search

    XML: View XML
Show More
Show Fewer
Jump to Top of Page